Rsync mac os x lion gui
If you intend to use the last option, you may need to install ssh ; see the Installing Ssh section. Upgrading to a new version of Unison is as simple as throwing away the old binary and installing the new one. Before upgrading, it is a good idea to run the old version one last time, to make sure all your replicas are completely synchronized. A new version of Unison will sometimes introduce a different format for the archive files used to remember information about the previous state of the replicas. In this case, the old archive will be ignored not deleted — if you roll back to the previous version of Unison, you will find the old archives intact , which means that any differences between the replicas will show up as conflicts that need to be resolved manually.
If a pre-built image is not available, you will need to compile it from scratch; the sources are available from the same place as the binaries. In principle, Unison should work on any platform to which OCaml has been ported and on which the Unix module is fully implemented. Unison can be built with or without a graphical user interface GUI. OCaml is available from most package managers Building and installing OCaml on Unix systems is very straightforward; just follow the instructions in the distribution.
Quick start: on many systems, the following sequence of commands will get you a working and installed compiler: first do make world opt , then su to root and do make install. The result should be an executable file called unison. You should get back a usage message. If you want to build the graphical user interface, you will need to install some additional things:. Type make to build Unison. Put the unison executable somewhere in your search path, either by adding the Unison directory to your PATH variable or by copying the executable to some standard directory where executables are stored.
To build the text-only user interface, follow the instructions above for building on Unix systems. You should do this first, even if you are also planning on building the GUI, just to make sure it works. Although the binary distribution should work on any version of Windows, some people may want to build Unison from scratch on those systems too. The simpler but slower compilation option to build a Unison executable is to build a bytecode version. You need first install Windows version of the OCaml compiler version 3.
Then grab a copy of Unison sources and type. Building a more efficient, native version of Unison on Windows requires a little more work. The Makefile in the distribution includes several switches that can be used to control how Unison is built. Here are the most useful ones:. The textual interface is more convenient for running from scripts and works on dumb terminals; the graphical interface is better for most interactive use.
For this tutorial, you can use either. If you are running Unison from the command line, just typing unison will select either the text or the graphical interface, depending on which has been selected as default when the executable you are running was built. You can force the text interface even if graphical is the default by adding -ui text. The other command-line arguments to both versions are identical. The graphical version can also be run directly by clicking on its icon, but this may require a little set-up see the Click-starting Unison section.
Unison can synchronize files and directories on a single machine, or between two machines on a network. The same program runs on both machines; the only difference is which one is responsible for displaying the user interface. Follow the instructions in the Installation section to either download or build an executable version of Unison, and install it somewhere on your search path. If you just want to use the textual user interface, download the appropriate textui binary.
If you just want to the graphical interface—or if you will use both interfaces [the gtkui binary actually has both compiled in]—then download the gtkui binary. Create a small test directory a. Now try synchronizing a. This time, the user interface will display only the files that have changed. If a file has been modified in just one replica, then it will be displayed with an arrow indicating the direction that the change needs to be propagated. For example,. If both replicas have been modified but their new contents are the same as with the file b , then no propagation is necessary and nothing is shown.
Unison simply notes that the file is up to date. These display conventions are used by both versions of the user interface. Every keyboard command can also be invoked from the menus at the top of the user interface. Conversely, each menu item is annotated with its keyboard equivalent, if it has one. A check sign will be displayed next to each filename when the file has been dealt with. Follow the instructions in the Installation section to download or build an executable version of Unison on the server machine, and install it somewhere on your search path.
It is important that the version of Unison installed on the server machine is the same as the version of Unison on the client machine. But some flexibility on the version of Unison at the client side can be achieved by using the -addversionno option; see the Preferences section. Now there is a decision to be made. Unison provides two methods for communicating between the client and the server:. Decide which of these you want to try, and continue with the Remote Shell Method section or the Socket Method section, as appropriate.
The standard remote shell facility on Unix systems is ssh , which provides the same functionality as the older rsh but much better security. Running ssh requires some coordination between the client and server machines to establish that the client is allowed to invoke commands on the server; please refer to the ssh documentation for information on how to set this up. The examples in this section use ssh , but you can substitute rsh for ssh if you wish. If remote execution fails, then either something is wrong with your ssh setup e.
Create a test directory a. The result should be that the entire directory a. After finishing the first synchronization, change a few files and try synchronizing again. You should see similar results as in the local case. If your user name on the server is not the same as on the client, you need to specify it on the command line:. To run Unison over a socket connection, you must start a Unison daemon process on the server. This process runs continuously, waiting for connections over a given socket from client machines running Unison and processing their requests in turn.
Note that paths specified by the client will be interpreted relative to the directory in which you start the server process; this behavior is different from the ssh case, where the path is relative to your home directory on the server. Now type:. Since the socket method is not used by many people, its functionality is rather limited. For example, the server can only deal with one client at a time. Once you are comfortable with the basic operation of Unison, you may find yourself wanting to use it regularly to synchronize your commonly used files.
There are several possible ways of going about this:. Most people find that they only need to maintain a profile or profiles on one of the hosts that they synchronize, since Unison is always initiated from this host. This is a bit different from the usual situation with asymmetric mirroring programs like rdist , where the mirroring operation typically needs to be initiated from the machine with the most recent changes.
Unison is designed for synchronizing pairs of replicas. However, it is possible to use it to keep larger groups of machines in sync by performing multiple pairwise synchronizations. The on-line information and the printed manual are essentially identical. If you use Unison regularly, you should subscribe to one of the mailing lists, to receive announcements of new versions.
See the Mailing Lists and Bug Reporting section. To understand how Unison works, it is necessary to discuss a few straightforward concepts. But the informal presentation here should be enough for most users. When path is given without any protocol prefix, the protocol is assumed to be file:. Under Windows, it is possible to synchronize with a remote directory using the file: protocol over the Windows Network Neighborhood. When the file: protocol is used in this way, there is no need for a Unison server to be running on the remote host.
However, running Unison this way is only a good idea if the remote host is reached by a very fast network connection, since the full contents of every file in the remote replica will have to be transferred to the local machine to detect updates. A path refers to a point within a set of files being synchronized; it is specified relative to the root of the replica.
Note that the path separator character is always a forward slash, no matter what operating system Unison is running on. Forward slashes are converted to backslashes as necessary when paths are converted to filenames in the local filesystem on a particular host. The empty path i. If p is a path and q is a path beginning with p , then q is said to be a descendant of p. Each path is also a descendant of itself. The contents of a path p in a particular replica could be a file, a directory, a symbolic link, or absent if p does not refer to anything at all in that replica.
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More specifically:. Unison keeps a record of the contents of each path after each successful synchronization of that path i. We say that a path is updated in some replica if its current contents are different from its contents the last time it was successfully synchronized. Note that whether a path is updated has nothing to do with its last modification time—Unison considers only the contents when determining whether an update has occurred. This means that touching a file without changing its contents will not be recognized as an update.
A file can even be changed several times and then changed back to its original contents; as long as Unison is only run at the end of this process, no update will be recognized. What Unison actually calculates is a close approximation to this definition; see the Caveats and Shortcomings section. Given the importance and delicacy of the job that it performs, it is important to understand both what a synchronizer does under normal conditions and what can happen under unusual conditions such as system crashes and communication failures.
Unison is careful to protect both its internal state and the state of the replicas at every point in this process. Specifically, the following guarantees are enforced:. The upshot is that it is safe to interrupt Unison at any time, either manually or accidentally. If Unison gets interrupted during one of these periods, some manual cleanup may be required. README will be left in your home directory, containing information about the operation that was interrupted. The next time you try to run Unison, it will notice this file and warn you about it. This is no problem: the next time Unison runs, it will detect changes to these paths in both replicas, notice that the contents are now equal, and mark the paths as successfully updated when it writes back its private state at the end of this run.
If Unison is interrupted, it may sometimes leave temporary working files with suffix. It is safe to delete these files. Also, if the backups flag is set, Unison will leave around old versions of files that it overwrites, with names like file. These can be deleted safely when they are no longer wanted. Unison is not bothered by clock skew between the different hosts on which it is running.
It only performs comparisons between timestamps obtained from the same host, and the only assumption it makes about them is that the clock on each system always runs forward. The effect of this is that, on the first run, files that exist in only one replica will be propagated to the other, while files that exist in both replicas but are unequal will be marked as conflicting.
Touching a file without changing its contents should never affect whether or not Unison does an update. Also, the -times option allows you to synchronize file times, but it does not cause identical files to be changed; Unison will only modify the file times. The next time it runs, it will assume that all the files it sees in the replicas are new. It is safe to modify files while Unison is working. If Unison discovers that it has propagated an out-of-date change, or that the file it is updating has changed on the target replica, it will signal a failure for that file.
Run Unison again to propagate the latest change. Changes to the ignore patterns from the user interface e. This is because Unison sees the rename as a delete and a separate create: it deletes the old directory including the ignored files and creates a new one not including the ignored files, since they are completely invisible to it.
How to Access iCloud Drive from Command Line in Mac OS
Unison stores a variety of information in a private directory on each host. The archive file for each replica is found in the. Profiles described below are always taken from the. I took the time to follow the instructions, which, at first, seemed very complicated and intimidating. But each step was explained. I had to take a leap of faith when it came to interpreting "Here you're also have to say to automator that you want to ignore input from previous action.
It took about 20 minutes to build it in Automator - a program I've never used before. I ran it. It deleted what I deleted. It created what I created. The folders where in sync. I recommend this procedure to anyone trying to synchronize two folders on a Macintosh. Thank you bananica! I think it's important to note that this is a one way sync. At least that's how it works for me. Still handy though and with another workflow to sync in the other direction it's very useful.
Thnaks for this great tutorial I do have 2 questions : Q1 Is there a way to select a sub folder coming from an app Open Package Contents ; it would be usefull to backup a huge MMO folder under Wine for example. Your Automator Script either. It work well on some medium size folder sync. Are ther some usage limit with Rsync? Q1 : R1 Work well with the command line method ; You just need to be very, very careful when typing the path. Sorry for posting in hurry Q2 : I don't find any answer.
All other MMO are Ok Well, I really really wish I hadn't done this. I have no idea what happened but the script didn't work, and it ended up deleting everything. I set it to copy out of my main work folder and the whole thing has disappeared, it's not in my trash either.
Seeing as I was trying to make this command work in order to back up in in the first place I don't have any back ups except an old one from several weeks back. I've just lost a whole load of work and I'm slightly in shock right now. Do you know how I might be able to reverse this command. Also I can't see any of the files in my recycle bin. I'm actually quite upset. I followed all the steps perfectly and then downloaded your script to test.
To anyone else, please please back up before you try this. Apologies for my slightly dramatic post yesterday. I have re-analysed the Automator workflow I made and can only assume that I got the two folders mixed up. As the rsync command effectively makes a mirror of the source folder in the destination folder, selecting an empty folder as the source will leave you with an empty destination folder, regardless of what was in it.
I've tried it again with some assitance from Branko and it's working great, so don't be put off using this script, just be careful because it's potentially quite dangerous if used incorrectly, as I found out the hard way :. Ran into it — adopted logic and bingo: works great! Thanks for sharing. This is a lifetime saver! This is a great tutorial! I have some questions: 1.
Is it possible to set default value for "Set Value of Variable" action in the workflow without showing a dialog when running it as an application? Is it possible to show the progress of rsync output while it is running without waiting until it finishes and output to the textedit? Do you have any idea to fix it? Thanks a lot. Here i find a usefull comment about extended attributes from extra Yes, the version of rsync that comes with all versions of OS X is rather outdated.
However, if you're going to use that version, you really should add another switch, -E. This tells rsync to include "extended attributes," various file properties, not just resource forks, that can be found on OS X files that aren't generally found on other Unix-based operating systems. Note single-dash parameters do not have to be written separately 'rsync -a -v -E' and 'rsync -avE' do the exact same thing. The easiest way to get a newer version of rsync on your Mac is to install Carbon Copy Cloner. You might also add the -A switch to preserve ACLs non-Unix file permissions but if you just making a folder to folder backup within an account on your computer, preserving ACLs probably isn't important.
Is there a way for doing this but on two different computers? If i edit my personal directory on my MacBook Pro, i want those changes to be there when i turn my iMac at home. Is this possible? Hi- This tutorial is amazing Now, when I run this script, trying to sync a folder in that Dropbox with a folder on another external drive, it hangs up on the 'syncing' bit and nothing seems to happen I made a test folder with only 3 items in it and followed your steps carefully including the --delete command.
Then I ran the workflow but it started deleting everything from my external drive that contained the target folder instead of only the folder itself. I managed to get it back from my other drives but what happened here? Any ideas? This still does not work. Hey there! So, this works great out of the box for what it does, but I'm curious and have seen a couple of other commenters ask this as well about setting this up to automatically sync? So, if I add a new movie to my folder, the syncing process will automatically run and send my new file to the external drive.
The same would be true for deleting files. Any thoughts? So this is working great, except for it's copying creating? Why did it enlarge both folders? Now both folders are 54 GB. Great workflow! I was wondering if there is a way to not copy the icon of the source folder and delete the icon of the target folder. Can anyone answer? What you want to do is exclude "Icon" file which is the folder icon. Instead, if i don't put the -E it deletes the icon of the target folder and create an empty file named "Icon".
I've been trying to get this to work, but it just doesn't seem to want to. When I do this in Terminal, it works perfectly This automator workflow works up until the Shell Script That's not even close to any of the directories I selected, and I have no idea what that means. The drive I'm copying from is on a server connected to my Mac via fibre. I'm trying to actually just create the folder structure from that place into my target place.
I'm a dummie. I never added the Get Variable bit All good now! This workflow works very well but I'd like to extend it to recursively sync files from subdirectories of the initial source directory. I think rsync automatically keeps the newest version but not positive. Another way to think of what I'm looking for is to take the basic script and repeat it loop? Any suggestions? Thx for the tutorial.
GIMP for Unix-like systems
I was using the shell script function to sync folders when plugging in a certain usb drive I am struggling because every time a drive is connected now, the shell script function pops up and asks whether to sync or not. How can I remove the work flow, since I already deleted it in automator? I am looking forward to hearing from you. Thanks a lot, i love this workflow. But i've a question, is it possible to save this txt document automatically with the name log"and a variable for Date and Time", because i want to combine it with an ical appointment.
Then it's very disturbing, if the TextEdit window constantly pops up. Excellent workflow, really helped a lot and very well explained. I made a slight change to mine by choosing New Text File at the end and setting a custom time and date name for the file. I wouldn't have been able to do this without having read your walk through and use of variables.
I was searching for this workflow the whole day!!! THX Dag. I tried to create the same workflow to sync a complete drive backup, but i cannot find the Set Variable Task in automator El Capitan however I do find Get variable Task. Is this not possible in El Capitan? The rsync action will treat the second item of the multiple selection as the sync destination, and delete its contents completely if '--delete' is set with no Trash recovery.
However, I did manage to completely wipe my external drive GB of media , and end up copying my Photos library over my Projects folder. I am trying to do almost exactly what you have done here. However I would like to copy all files in a folder as well as all files in every sub folder without the folders containing them. Is it posible to synchronize automatically? I know there are some folder options when a new file comes to the folder, but I would like to synchronize when I modify a file or, alternatively, every few minutes.
What a crap!! It will be easer to use rsync on a script Why do you accept all this crap? My gerneration was used that Mac was the best, long time ago. Geek Stuff Everything Else. Web Photo Graphic. But that is beside the point. Any backup strategy that can fail and irrecoverably take all your data to Valhalla is a horrible strategy.
I need something that cannot fail. As it turns out, I have never really cared about the save-old-versions-of-files feature of Time Machine. I have used it to recover entire volumes — twice, both during machine upgrades.
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Recovering an inadvertently deleted file is rather rare for me, but I suppose I do care about that feature a little bit. Time Machine sparsebundle files are opaque to the average user. You cannot open them up, peek inside, and grab the files you need. You need the Time Machine client, and when it encounters an error with the backup file, it offers no choice but to abort and start over. This is why I use rsync. With a little bit of Time Machine still involved for added spice. You know, just to keep things interesting. In its simplest form, it just copies files from one place to another.
Which is how I use it.
Time Machine sucks, use rsync instead
The end result of an rsync backup is a mirror of your source data. Readable by anything that can read the format of the target filesystem. This part is critical. Backups are irrelevant if nothing can recover them. A bunch of files in a directory on a disk is accessible by just about everything. Time Machine sparsebundles require Time Machine, on a Mac. Files in a directory can be read by any app or OS. Thisincreases your odds of recovery by, well, a lot. I have a few computers around the house. Our primary family computer is an iMac, and has one internal disk and two USB external disks.
The internal disk has all the user folders, documents, applications, and OS files. The external drives contain photos, movies, music, etc. The username stuff allows me to log in to the server and perform the backup using that identity on the server. Rsync can fail with network or disk hardware errors. Time Machine can fail with network, disk hardware, or buggy software errors. I prefer rsync for the really important stuff, and use Time Machine for the OS disk, which is relatively small and something I can recover from quickly after the inevitable Time Machine error.
Superb advice. One caveat, though. I downloaded and built rsync version 3. Of course, 2. Could you please give me some advice? I am backing up from Snow Leopard with rsync 2. At the moment I just use rsync -av and I get quite many permission errors, it seams to back up just right thought. I be installing 3. However, permission errors may be able to be addressed by using sudo. Try sudo rsync -av. This is bad on a number of levels. It will also correspondingly bang the crap out of your network.
Using this option should keep your back-up process rsync from slowing down your machine.